Energy poverty distribution in the city of Madrid, Spain
A methodology that allows the localization of urban areas that are suffering from fuel poverty is developed. Average incomes per household and residential energy consumption for each urban area are analyzed with a Geographical Information System. This methodology is applied to a case study: the city of Madrid (Spain). By estimating the cost of energy services per household, the weight of the different factors influencing the energy services is uncovered: quality of construction, thermal facilities, energy sources supply and billing structure used by the Spanish energy sector. It is concluded that the interaction of these factors causes households included in the minimum income brackets to be at risk of energy poverty independently of the energy efficiency of housing. This means that specific public policies to combat energy poverty are needed, in order to complement energy refurbishment plans.